Report on the Work of the European Advisory Commission21
Section I: Organisation and Procedure of the Commission
The European Advisory Commission was established by the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the [Page 545] Union of Soviet Socialist Republics pursuant to an agreement concluded on 1st November, 1943, at the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers.22 The Conference decided that the Commission would be composed of representatives of the three Powers, assisted where necessary by civilian and military advisers; that it would have its seat in London, where a joint Secretariat would be established; and that the Presidency would be held in rotation by the representatives of the three Powers.
The principal terms of reference of the Commission were defined as follows:—
- “The Commission will study and make recommendations to the three Governments upon European questions connected with the termination of hostilities which the three Governments may consider appropriate to refer to it . …”
- “As one of the Commission’s first task the three Governments desire that it shall, as soon as possible, make detailed recommendations to them upon the terms of surrender to be imposed upon each of the European States with which any of the three Powers are at war, and upon the machinery required to ensure the fulfilment of those terms . . . .” In its study of these matters, the Commission was directed to take into account relevant information furnished by the three Governments, as well as the experience already gained in the imposition and enforcement of unconditional surrender upon Italy.
- “Representatives of the Governments of other United Nations will, at the discretion of the Commission, be invited to take part in meetings of the Commission when matters especially affecting their interests are under discussion.”
As a result of the scope and complexity of problems connected with the surrender, occupation and control of Germany, and as a result of the way in which military operations in Europe developed, the European Advisory Commission has in practice, with the approbation of the member Governments, concentrated its attention primarily upon German and Austrian questions.
The following were appointed as Representatives of their Governments on the Commission: Mr. J. G. Winant, Ambassador of the United States; Mr. F. T. Gousev, Ambassador of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; and Sir William Strang (later Sir R. I. Campbell), of the United Kingdom Foreign Office.
On 11th November, 1944, the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics invited the Provisional Government of the French Republic [Page 546] to become a member of the Commission.23 Upon the acceptance of this invitation the French Ambassador in London, M. Massigli, took his seat in the Commission for the first time at the formal meeting held on 27th November, 1944.
Each Representative was assisted by such political, military and other advisers and experts as his Government found it practical to provide for the purpose. These advisers and experts varied from time to time according to the nature of the problems under discussion. As a general rule, each Representative was accompanied at meetings of the Commission by one or two advisers who participated in the discussions as required.
The Commission had at its disposal a combined Secretariat, consisting of a Secretary-General, officials appointed by certain Delegations, and a small staff of interpreters, translators and clerks. The Secretary-General was in charge of the Secretariat and was responsible to the Commission for its work. The Secretariat had its seat in Lancaster House, which was also the meeting-place of the Commission. Expenses incurred as “common service charges,” which were not large, were shared equally among the three, later four, Governments, while each Government paid the salaries of its own nationals serving in the Secretariat.
The duties of the Secretariat comprised the following: (1) oral interpretations at meetings (2) translation, reproduction and circulation of documents, (3) arrangement and custody of the official records, (4) preparation of the Minutes of formal meetings and of the Secretary General’s notes of informal meetings.
The Chairmanship of the Commission was held in rotation in the following order: Mr. Winant, Mr. Gousev, Sir William Strang (later Sir R. I. Campbell), M. Massigli. Each Chairman presided for a term of one month, from the 14th of January, 1944 (the date of the first formal meeting).
English and Russian were established as official languages of the Commission, with equal validity. When the French Representative took his seat in the Commission he informed his colleagues that, in order to expedite business, but without thereby creating a precedent, he would normally speak in English and would use French when occasion arose for a more precise statement. After the French Representative joined the Commission, Agreements were signed in the English, Russian and French languages, all three texts being authentic.
The Commission decided at its preliminary meeting on 15th December, 1945,  that its proceedings, minutes and documents would be secret, and that members of the Delegations and of the Secretariat would have no dealings with the Press. Such public statements as [Page 547] were to be issued by or on the recommendation of the Commission had first to be approved by the Commission as a whole.
In general the main work of negotiation in the Commission was carried on by the Representatives themselves, without delegation of authority to committees. The Commission, however, did have two formally constituted committees serving under it.
The Establishment Committee, consisting of the Secretary General, as Chairman, and three members, one from each Delegation, was formed on 18th February, 1944, for the purpose of making recommendations with regard to expenses incurred at Lancaster House and the work of the Secretariat.
The Allied Consultation Committee consisting of one civilian and one military member from each Delegation, was formed on 7th December, 1944, for the purpose of facilitating consultation between the Commission and certain European Allied Governments on various matters especially affecting the latter. The work of this Committee is described in greater detail in Section III below.
In addition to these two Committees, ad hoc committees of experts were appointed from time to time and charged with various special and technical tasks.
Meetings of the Commission were called by the Chairman at the request of any Delegation. Although three of the four Representatives were Ambassadors in London and in this capacity had heavy responsibilities aside from their duties in connection with the European Advisory Commission, the Representatives at all times held themselves at the disposal of their colleagues.
The Commission held 20 formal and 97 informal meetings. A preliminary and informal session was held on 15th December, 1943, for the purpose of settling questions of procedure. At the first formal meeting, convened on 14th January, 1944, the decisions of the preliminary session were confirmed and formal meetings continued to be held regularly from that date until 23rd March, 1944. Minutes of these formal meetings were prepared by the Secretary General in draft form and circulated to the Delegations for amendment and approval, after which they were distributed in final form. Thereafter the Commission conducted all its discussions without formal minutes in a series of informal sessions; and formal meetings were convened only for the purpose of signing Agreements or establishing a formal record of other proceedings. The minutes of formal meetings at which Agreements were signed were prepared in advance and signed by the Representatives at the meeting itself. While no minutes of informal meetings were circulated, the Secretary General summarized the proceedings of these sessions in a “Secretary General’s note of an informal meeting,” copies of which were retained in the files of the Secretariat and made available to any Delegation upon request.[Page 548]
The Commission prepared and recommended to the Governments twelve formal Agreements, the texts of which, together with the Minutes of the meetings at which the documents were signed, are attached [Annex 1].24 These Agreements had their inception in memoranda or draft agreements submitted to the Commission by the various Delegations. Such proposals were the subject of careful study by each Delegation and of thorough and frank discussion in meetings of the Commission. As a result of this detailed examination and exchange of views on each proposal, amendments and revisions were made until a text unanimously approved by the Representatives was formulated. The final agreed text was signed by the Representatives and transmitted, usually under cover of a brief report, to the Governments for their consideration and approval. Each Government communicated its approval of an Agreement to its Representative, who then notified the other Representatives by letter. All Agreements signed in the Commission have been approved without amendment by all the Governments concerned, except that the United States Government considered that Article 38 of the Agreement on Certain Additional Requirements to be imposed on Germany should be referred to the Control Council in Berlin for consideration. The Commission has prepared Summaries of most of the signed Agreements for communication to the Representatives of the chiefly interested European Allied Governments, and also for simultaneous publication in the four capitals.
Continuous contact of the four Representatives has enabled them to consider informally a range of problems considerably wider than that of the Agreements which have actually been signed, and to acquaint their Governments with the views of other Governments on many aspects of the treatment of Germany. For example the Commission has discussed, among other topics, restitution, the status of foreign correspondents in Germany, the protection of United Nations nationals in Germany, and a general Directive on the Treatment of Germany in the Initial Post-Defeat Period. Members of the Commission have studied the drafts presented by their colleagues on such matters as mutual exchange of intelligence information pertaining to Germany, foreign representation in Germany, and directives which were prepared with a view to possible issuance by the Governments to the Commanders-in-Chief in Germany and which dealt with a wide variety of problems related to the political, economic and military control of Germany. The Commission, however, had no time to give detailed consideration to all these matters.
Mutual confidence between members of the Commission, built up over many months of frank discussion, has facilitated the removal of [Page 549] difficulties which might otherwise have hindered the full cooperation of the Allies.
Section II: Agreements Signed by the Commission
a. surrender, occupation and control of germany
(1) Unconditional Surrender of Germany
At the first formal meeting the Commission agreed that its initial task should be that of drawing up the terms of surrender of Germany and devising machinery for their enforcement. Each of the Delegations (United Kingdom, United States and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) accordingly prepared draft proposals on this subject. The United Kingdom Delegation proposed a “Draft German Armistice” (15th January, 1944)25 based on the principle of unconditional surrender and designed to confer on the Allied Powers far-reaching political and military authority. In presenting this draft, which comprised 70 articles, the United Kingdom Delegation emphasized the view that whatever form of surrender was ultimately imposed upon Germany in the light of the conditions prevailing at the time, a relatively long armistice document would in the initial stages of discussion be the most convenient way of ensuring thorough consideration of all the issues involved. The United States Delegation circulated two documents. The first of these (25th January 1944),26 in the form of a memorandum rather than a draft instrument ready for signature, comprised 27 provisions to be imposed on Germany, while the second, a “Draft Instrument and Acknowledgment of Unconditional Surrender” (6th March, 1944),27 contained thirteen general articles under which the Allies assumed supreme military and political authority over Germany. The United States Delegation proposed that this instrument be accompanied by proclamations and orders setting forth in greater detail the more specific requirements which Germany would be obliged to carry out. The Delegation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics circulated (18th February, 1944)28 “Draft Terms of Surrender” in 20 articles. This document was primarily military in character designed to effect the cessation of hostilities, the disarament of the German forces, the surrender of military material and the occupation of Germany. The final article, however, provided that the Allies would present additional political, economic and military requirements connected with the surrender of [Page 550] Germany which would undertake to carry them out unconditionally.
The Commission discussed these proposals at considerable length in a series of formal and informal meetings and as a result unanimously resolved to draft a surrender instrument which would be relatively brief and predominantly military in character, while reserving to the Allied Governments complete freedom to impose subsequently such additional terms as might be deemed necessary. It was understood that many of the detailed political and economic provisions which had appeared in the initial United Kingdom proposal and which were not to be included in an instrument of a relatively brief character, could be incorporated in agreed form in a general order or other document of a similar nature. (See below, “Agreement on Additional Requirements.”)
With the assistance of a committee of experts, which considered the military terms in all the draft documents on the unconditional surrender of Germany, the Commission analysed, compared and coordinated the relevant provisions of the proposals before it, and as a result formulated, article by article, a single tentative draft of the surrender instrument. This document, after undergoing successive revisions and modifications at the hands of a committee of experts, a drafting committee, and the Commission itself, emerged later as the approved text of the “Unconditional Surrender of Germany,” signed by the Representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 25th July, 1944.29 The accompanying Report by the Commission30 explained that the Surrender Instrument was predominantly military, comprising an unqualified acknowledgment of the complete defeat of Germany, a short series of military articles providing for the cessation of hostilities and for disarmament, and a general article setting forth the supreme authority of the Allies and binding Germany to carry out unconditionally such further requirements as the Allies might impose. The Report also contained an interpretation of Article 2 (b) of the Instrument and informed the Governments of the action which the Commission contemplated taking in the matter of consultation with other Allied Governments. [E.A.C.(44) 7th Meeting].
By an Agreement signed on 1st May, 1945,31 by the Representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the “Unconditional Surrender of Germany” was amended to allow for full participation of the Provisional Government [Page 551] of the French Republic in the imposition of surrender terms upon Germany. [E.A.C. (45) 1st Meeting.]
(2) Declaration regarding the Defeat of Germany and the Assumption of Supreme Authority with respect to Germany
While the “Unconditional Surrender of Germany” was prepared on the assumption that it would be signed on the one hand by the Allied Representatives and on the other by representatives of the German Government and German High Command, the Commission recognized in its initial discussions that the complete defeat of the German armed forces might result in there being at the close of hostilities no Central Government in Germany capable of signing a general surrender or giving effect to the requirements of the Allies. As military operations developed, the possibility of such a situation arising became more probable, and the Commission accordingly undertook to recast the “Unconditional Surrender of Germany” in the form of a Declaration to be issued, without German signature, by the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Provisional Government of the French Republic. On the basis of the “Unconditional Surrender of Germany,” a United Kingdom proposal circulated on 30th March, 1945,32 and amendments to the latter proposed by the other Delegations, the Commission drafted and on 12th May, 1945, signed the “Declaration regarding the Defeat of Germany and the Assumption of Supreme Authority with respect to Germany.”33 [E.A.C. (45) 3rd Meeting.]
Following a number of local military surrenders, brief unconditional surrender terms were signed by the German military authorities provisionally at Rheims on 7th May and finally at Berlin on 8th May, 1945.34 The Declaration was approved by the four Governments by 21st May, 1945. The Commission agreed on 4th June to recommend to the four Governments that the four Commanders-in-Chief meet in Berlin for the purpose of signing and publishing the Declaration. In accordance with this recommendation, the Declaration was signed and issued at Berlin on 5th June.[Page 552]
(3) Zones of Occupation in Germany and the Administration of Greater Berlin
From March to September, 1944, the Commission considered the problem of zones of military occupation in Germany and the administration of Greater Berlin. The Commission had before it basic proposals on this subject presented by the United Kingdom Delegation on 15th January, 1944,35 by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Delegation on 18th February, 1944,36 and by the United States Delegation on 12th June, 1944,37 as well as various revised proposals circulated at informal meetings. The first stage in reaching a complete agreement was the signature by the Representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 12th September, 1944, of a Protocol38 which defined the boundaries of three zones of occupation in Germany within her frontiers as they were on 31st December, 1937, delimited three sectors of occupation in the Berlin area, and provided for the establishment of an Inter-Allied Governing Authority for Berlin. The Protocol also provided that the Eastern zone in Germany and the North Eastern sector of Berlin would be occupied by armed forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, but did not allocate the other zones or the sectors in Berlin as between the United Kingdom and United States forces. [E.A.C. (44) 9th Meeting.] A further Agreement signed in the Commission on 14th November, 1944,39 made certain alterations in the boundaries between the North Western and South Western zones, assigned the North Western zone in Germany, as well as the North Western part of Berlin, to the United Kingdom, and assigned the South Western zone, as well as the Southern part of Berlin, to the United States. [E.A.C. (44) 12th Meeting.] The Crimea Conference decided that a French zone in Germany should be formed from the United Kingdom and the United States zones and referred the matter to the European Advisory Commission for implementation.40 An Agreement signed in the Commission on 26th July, 1945,41 defined the boundaries of the French zone, fixed the new limits of the United [Page 553] Kingdom and United States zones, and provided for French participation in the administration of Greater Berlin. On account of the physical conditions prevailing in the area, the Commission did not attempt in this Agreement to fix the boundaries of a French sector of occupation in Berlin, but recommended that the limits of this sector, which would have to be formed from the United Kingdom and United States sectors on account of the greater destruction in the Soviet area, be determined by the Control Council in Berlin. [E.A.C. (45) 7th Meeting.] On the date this Agreement was signed, an exchange of letters took place between the Governments of the United Kingdom and the United States of America and the Provisional Government of the French Republic regarding a possible future adjustment between the French zone and the United States and United Kingdom zones of occupation.42 The United States and French Representatives also exchanged letters relating to the use by the French authorities of certain records located at Karlsruhe and to the free passage to be accorded United States forces across and above the French zone.43
(4) Control Machinery in Germany
Between February and November, 1944, the Commission considered the subject of Allied machinery required for effective control of Germany. At this stage the three Governments were not yet prepared to formulate in detail the content of their policy towards Germany, but the Commission considered it essential to agree in advance on machinery through which the Allies could carry out in Germany whatever policies the Governments might finally lay down. On the basis of a number of proposals circulated by the United Kingdom, United States and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Delegations, the Commission undertook to work out an agreement on control machinery which could be put into operation whether or not a German central authority existed at the time of surrender. The Agreement on Control Machinery signed on 14th November, 1944,44 provided for a tripartite Control Council and subsidiary agencies through which the Allies would exercise supreme authority in the period during which Germany would be carrying out the basic requirements of unconditional surrender. The purpose of these agencies comprised the control and disarmament of Germany, including the most urgent tasks of economic disarmament, the abolition of the Nazi regime, and the preparation of conditions for the establishment in Germany of organs based on democratic principles. [E.A.C. (44) 11th Meeting.][Page 554]
An additional Agreement signed by the Representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Provisional Government of the French Republic on 1st May, 1945,45 provided for participation of the Provisional Government of the French Republic in the control machinery on an equal basis. [E.A.C. (45) 2nd Meeting.]
(5) Certain Additional Requirements to be Imposed on Germany
From the beginning of the discussions of German surrender, it was realized that effective control over Germany would eventually require an agreement supplementing the predominantly military clauses of the Surrender Instrument by providing for joint action of the Allies in the political and economic spheres. The Commission agreed in March, 1944, that certain broad political and economic requirements should be imposed upon Germany at the time of, or shortly after, the surrender, and the way for such action was prepared by Article 13(b) of the Declaration issued on 5th June, 1945. After preliminary discussions in late 1944 and early 1945, the Commission during May and June, 1945, worked out a long document embodying some of the more urgent of these requirements. The “Agreement on Certain Additional Requirements to be Imposed on Germany” was signed in the Commission on 25th July, 1945,46 and submitted to the four Governments with the recommendation that it be transmitted, after approval by the four Governments, to the Allied Representatives in Berlin for their guidance. The Agreement covered a wide range of matters of common concern to the four Powers, including the abolition of Nazi and militaristic organizations, surrender of war criminals, and joint control over German foreign relations, production, trade, finance, transportation and movement of persons. The accompanying Report47 contained a number of interpretations and explanations of certain articles in the text of the Agreement. [E.A.C. (45) 6th Meeting.] When signing the Report the United Kingdom Representative made an oral statement regarding paragraph 3(d).
b. occupation and control of austria
On the basis of the Moscow Declaration on Austria of November, 1943, and a similar statement subsequently issued by the French Committee of National Liberation,48 the Commission, at an early stage in [Page 555] its discussions concerning Germany, agreed that separate arrangements would be concluded for the occupation and control of Austria. Preliminary consideration of these subjects was begun in 1944 and proceeded intensively in April, May and June, 1945.
(1) Control Machinery in Austria
On the basis of draft proposals submitted by the various Delegations, the Commission formulated, and on 4th July, 1945, signed the “Agreement on Control Machinery in Austria,”49 which provided for an Allied Commission to exercise supreme authority until the establishment of a freely elected Austrian Government recognized by the four Powers. The control machinery for Austria differed from that set up in Germany not only in the details of its structure, but also in its purposes, since the Allied organs in Austria were, in addition to the duty of enforcing the relevant provisions of the Declaration of 5th June, 1945, charged with the tasks of achieving the separation of Austria from Germany, securing the creation as soon as possible of a central Austrian administrative machine, and preparing the way for the establishment of a freely elected Austrian Government. [E.A.C.(45) 4th Meeting.] When signing this Agreement, the United States Representative made an oral statement on the subject of Austrian reparations and parallel statements were subsequently made by the United Kingdom and French Representatives.
(2) Zones of Occupation in Austria and the Administration of the City of Vienna
After thorough study and discussion of the drafts submitted and the numerous issues involved, the Commission signed the “Agreement on Zones of Occupation in Austria and the Administration of the City of Vienna” on 9th July, 1945.50 Austria was divided into four zones of occupation, one of which was allocated to the armed forces of each of the four Powers, while the City of Vienna within the 1937 frontiers was likewise divided into sectors of occupation, with the Innere Stadt being occupied jointly and the City as a whole being subject to the administration of an Inter-Allied Governing Authority. Two aerodromes falling within the Soviet zone, in the vicinity of Vienna, were placed under the administrative and operational control of the United States and United Kingdom forces to facilitate the transport requirements of the British, United States and French Commanders-in-Chief. The accompanying Report of the Commission51 contained a number [Page 556] of recommendations having to do with freedom of movement and communication and transit facilities; and with accommodation and training and recreation areas for the garrison of the City of Vienna. [E.A.C. (45) 5th Meeting.]
c. armistice with bulgaria
During August, September and October, 1944, the Commission devoted much of its attention to the preparation of armistice terms for Bulgaria on the basis of drafts proposed by the Delegations.52 The discussions which resulted in the final Agreement on this subject were based in the later stages on a Soviet proposal. The Agreement with its accompanying Protocol was signed by the Representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 22nd October, 1944.53 [E.A.C. (44) 10th Meeting.] On the basis of a letter of the United States Representative of the same date,54 letters were subsequently exchanged between the United Kingdom, the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Representatives regarding the manner in which Article 18 of the Armistice should be implemented following the cessation of hostilities with Germany.
Section III: Consultation “With the European Allied Governments
In accordance with its terms of reference, the Commission decided to hold consultations with certain European Allied Governments on matters especially affecting their interests. In a letter of 25th July, 1944,55 the Chairman of the Commission invited the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics reserving its position in regard to the Polish Government in London) and Yugoslavia, and the Representatives in London of Greece and the French Committee of National Liberation, to submit to the Commission in writing such statements of their views or expositions of their special interests as they desired to make known concerning the terms of surrender for Germany and the machinery required to ensure the fulfilment of such terms. Pursuant to this invitation, basic memoranda [Page 557] were submitted to the Commission by the Governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway and Poland.56 These memoranda (with the exception of the one submitted by the Polish Government in London, which was studied by the United Kingdom and United States experts alone) were studied by the experts of the three Delegations and considered by the Commission. Thereafter the Commission appointed on 7th December, 1944, the Allied Consultation Committee, under the Chairmanship of the Soviet member, Mr. Sobolev57 (later Mr. Saksin). This Committee prepared a summary of the Instrument of Surrender58 and held a series of joint meetings early in 1945 with the Representatives of Czechoslovakia; Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (the Representatives of these three Governments, which had submitted virtually identical memoranda, attended meetings as a group); Norway; Yugoslavia; and Greece. At each such meeting, the Representative of one of the Allied Governments received a copy of the summary together with certain oral explanations. After the Representatives of the Allied Governments had studied the summary, further meetings were held at which these Representatives were furnished additional explanations in reply to questions which they desired to raise.
On 25th May, 1945, the Allied Consultation Committee held a joint meeting with the Representatives of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway and Yugoslavia and transmitted to them the text of the “Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany,” which had been signed in the Commission on 12th May, 1945. An additional joint meeting on the subject of the Declaration was held on 8th June, 1945, with the Representatives of Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands for the purpose or replying to various questions raised by them. On 2nd June, the Committee transmitted to the Representatives of the seven Governments mentioned above summaries which it had prepared, and which had been approved by the Commission, on the zones of occupation in Germany and on control machinery for Germany.59
On 31st July, 1945, the Committee held a joint meeting with the Representatives of eight Governments, the seven previously consulted [Page 558] and the Polish Government of National Unity,60 which was represented for the first time. Summaries of the Agreements on zones of occupation and control machinery in Austria,61 which had been prepared by the Committee and previously approved by the Commission, were transmitted to the Allied Governments.
The Allied Consultation Committee held 21 meetings, 11 of which were joint meetings with Representatives of the Allied Governments.
Section IV: Dissolution of the Commission
The communiqué of the Tripartite Conference in Berlin issued on 2nd August, 1945, contained the following paragraph concerning the European Advisory Commission:—
“The conference also considered the position of the European Advisory Commission in the light of the agreement to establish the Council of Foreign Ministers. It was noted with satisfaction that the Commission had ably discharged its principal tasks by the recommendations that it had furnished for the terms of Germany’s unconditional surrender, for the zones of occupation in Germany and Austria, and for the inter-Allied control machinery in those countries. It was felt that further work of a detailed character for the co-ordination of Allied policy for the control of Germany and Austria would in future fall within the competence of the Allied Control Council at Berlin and the Allied Commission at Vienna. Accordingly, it was agreed to recommend that the European Advisory Commission be dissolved.”
This recommendation was communicated to and approved by the Provisional Government of the French Republic.62
European Advisory Commission
- Transmitted to the Department by the Office of the United States Political Adviser for Germany at Frankfurt in despatch 537, November 25, 1947. This despatch says in part: “The American Embassy in London has informed this Office that neither the Department of State in Washington nor the Embassy in London has a copy of the Report. The Office of the Political Adviser, therefore, had photostatic copies made for its files, for the Embassy in London, for the Office of Political Affairs in Berlin and for the archives of the Department.” (740.0019 EAC/11–2547)↩
- For documentation on this Conference, see Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. i, pp. 513 ff.↩
- For documentation regarding the question of French participation in the European Advisory Commission, see Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. i, pp. 85 ff.↩
- Brackets throughout this document appear in the original. Annex 1 not printed.↩
- Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. i, p. 112.↩
- For text of this document in the form of a memorandum by the Working Security Committee, dated January 6, 1944, see ibid., p. 104.↩
- The original version of this document was transmitted as subenclosure 1 to instruction 3735, February 12, 1944, to London, ibid., p. 167. For the revisions made in this document, see telegram 1395, February 25, 1944, 2 p.m., to London, ibid., p. 182.↩
- Ibid., p. 173.↩
- Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. i, p. 256.↩
- Ibid., p. 254.↩
- Ante, p. 258.↩
- Annex A to memorandum by the United Kingdom Representative on the European Advisory Commission (Strang), E.A.C.(45)28, March 30, p. 208.↩
- For text of this Declaration, which was signed and issued in Berlin on June 5, 1945, by the military representatives of the Governments of the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and France, see Department of State, Treaties and Other International Acts Series (TIAS) No. 1520, or 60 Stat. 1649. For documentation regarding the negotiations in the European Advisory Commission relative to the Declaration regarding the Defeat of Germany and the Assumption of Supreme Authority with respect to Germany, see pp. 160 ff.↩
- See bracketed note, p. 280.↩
- Memorandum by the United Kingdom Representative on the European Advisory Commission regarding the military occupation of Germany, E.A.C.(44)2, January 15, 1944, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. i, p. 139.↩
- Memorandum by the Representative of the Soviet Union on the European Advisory Commission entitled “Terms of Surrender for Germany”, E.A.C. (44) 9 (Revised), February 18, 1944, ibid., p. 173.Memorandum by the Representative of the Soviet Union on the European Advisory Commission entitled “Terms of Surrender for Germany”, E.A.C. (44) 9 (Revised), February 18, 1944, ibid., p. 173.↩
- For the instructions to the United States Representative on the European Advisory Commission relative to the United States proposal regarding zones of occupation in Germany, see telegram 3499, May 1, 1944, to London, ibid., p. 211.For the instructions to the United States Representative on the European Advisory Commission relative to the United States proposal regarding zones of occupation in Germany, see telegram 3499, May 1, 1944, to London, ibid., p. 211.↩
- For text, see TIAS No. 3071, or United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (UST), vol. 5 (pt. 2), p. 2078.For text, see TIAS No. 3071, or United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (UST), vol. 5 (pt. 2), p. 2078.↩
- For text, see TIAS No. 3071, or 5 UST (pt. 2) 2087.↩
- See article II, “The Occupation and Control of Germany”, of the Communiqué issued at the end of the Crimea Conference, dated February 11, 1945, Foreign Relations, The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945, p. 970.↩
- For text, see TIAS No. 3071, or 5 UST (pt. 2) 2093.↩
- For a description of this exchange of letters, see Conference of Berlin (Potsdam), vol. ii, p. 1005, footnote 2.↩
- For a description of this exchange of letters, see ibid .↩
- For text, see TIAS No. 3070, or 5 UST (pt. 2) 2063.↩
- 5 UST (pt.2) 2072.↩
- For text, see Conference of Berlin (Potsdam), vol. ii, p. 1011.↩
- Ibid., p. 1008.↩
- The Declaration on Austria was issued by the Governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union at Moscow on November 1, 1943, at the conclusion of the Tripartite Conference of Foreign Ministers. For text of the Declaration, see Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. i, p. 761. The communiqué from the French Committee of National Liberation on the subject of Austrian independence was issued on November 15, 1943.↩
- For text, see Conference of Berlin (Potsdam), vol. i, p. 351.↩
- For text, see TIAS 1600, or 61 Stat. (pt. 3) 2679. For United States and British statements concerning this agreement, see telegram 6742, July 4, 1945, 8 p.m., from London, Conference of Berlin (Potsdam), vol. i, p. 346, and telegram 6858, July 7, 1945, 2 p.m., from London, ibid., p. 347; for the French statement, see despatch 24168, July 9, from London, ante, p. 157.↩
- For text, see telegram 6894, July 9, 4 p.m., from London, p. 158.↩
- For documentation regarding the negotiations leading to the signing of an armistice with Bulgaria at Moscow, October 28, 1944, see Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. iii, pp. 300 ff.↩
- Not printed; see telegram 9077, October 22, 1944, midnight, from London, ibid., p. 472. For the final text of the armistice agreement with Bulgaria signed at Moscow, October 28, 1944, and the accompanying protocol signed the same day, see Department of State, Executive Agreement Series No. 437, or 58 Stat. (pt. 2) 1498.↩
- For text of the letter by the United States Representative, see telegram 9077, October 22, 1944, midnight, from London, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. iii, p. 472.↩
- ibid., vol. i, p. 63.↩
- For summaries of the views of the European Allied Governments regarding the terms of surrender to be imposed upon Germany, see the report of the Committee of Experts of the European Advisory Commission, Document P12/11/44, dated October 4, 1944, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. i, p. 68.↩
- Arkady Aleksandrovich Sobolev, Soviet Minister Counselor in the United Kingdom.↩
- Document P8/33/44, dated December 7, 1944, p. 168.↩
- For texts of the draft summary of the agreement on the occupation of Germany, designated E.A.C. document P9/40/45, dated May 4, and the draft summary of the agreement on control machinery in Germany, designated E.A.C. document P26/39/45, dated May 4, see p. 264.↩
- For documentation regarding United States interest in establishment of a Polish Government of National Unity, see vol. v, pp. 110 ff.↩
- For texts of the two summaries, which were released to the press on August 8, 1945, see Department of State Bulletin, August 12, 1945, p. 221.↩
- The recommendation was contained in the invitation by the Governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to the Government of France to participate in a Council of Foreign Ministers, transmitted in note 533, July 31, 1945, from the Ambassador in France (Caffery) to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs (Bidault), Conference of Berlin (Potsdam), vol. ii, p. 1543. For text of the French reply to the invitation, see telegram 4774, August 7, 1945, midnight, from Paris, ibid., p. 1553.↩